USING ADVERB TIME AND CAUSE CONNECTORS

There are two basic patterns in the sentences with adverb clauses in English. For further information, let’s study the clauses and connectors in the sentences below:

Mona will go to Jakarta before Steve passes the exam.

Before Steve passes the exam, Mona will go to Jakarta.

In every sentence above, there are two clauses: you leave and I will sign the check. The clause you leave is an adverb time clause because it is introduced with the connector before. In the first sentence, the connector “beforecomes in the middle of the sentence, and it doesn’t use comma (,). In the second sentence above, there is a connector “beforeat the beginning of the sentence. The meaning of both sentences is same. The difference is just on the patterns. In the pattern like on the second sentence, there should be a comma in the middle of the sentence. A comma (,) is required in the middle of the sentence when the connector comes at the beginning of the sentence.

Look at the following example. It shows how this sentence pattern could be tested:



In this example below, there is a verb (was) that needs a subject. There is also another clause, I missed the appointment.
Answer (D) is the best answer. Why? Because there is a subject (he) for the verb (was). There is also a connector (since) to join the two clauses.

Analysis:
·         Answer (A) and (C):  If you choose these answer, you will have a subject for the verb was, but you will not have a suited connector to join the two clauses. You need a connector to join these two clauses. So, answers (A) and (C) are incorrect.
·         Answer (B) is incorrect. Why? Because there is no subject for the verb was.

Look at the following chart. It lists adverb time and cause connectors and the sentence patterns used with them:


Also look at the following chart. The chart below lists the adverb contrast, condition, manner, and place connectors and the sentence patterns used with them:


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