what is this?

What is a news item text? A news item text is a text which is grouped into the text genre of narration. The main function of narration is is telling stories or informing about events in chronological order. The order in the narration can be based of time, place and the events them selves.
Referring to the high school graduate standard, news item text should be completely studied in the first class with narrative and recount text. These three text types explore the way on how a story or event is retold to others.
News item text is written for public information of what is the newsworthy of the day. Basically, a news item text tries to answer the 5Ws and 1H questions; what, who, when, where, why, and how relating to the newsworthy.
Due to the different generic structure of text types, though news item is in one group of narration genres with narrative and recount, understanding the structures on how the news item composed is absolutely important for better understanding on text genres which are different from one type to another. The following example of news item text is taken from the jakarta post which is best in revealing what news item is and how it is structured.

Three Die after Attending Marriage Ceremony
Three residents were killed, while dozens of others were wounded after a pickup truck they were taking to attend a marriage ceremony overturned in Jingkang village, Banyumas Regency, on Sunday.
The pickup was carrying 30 passengers, mostly women, when it failed to ascend a steep road on its way back from the ceremony.
As a result, the passengers were squeezed. The wounded passengers were later rushed to the Ajibarang regional public hospital.
Local police are investigating the cause of the accident.

After reading above example of news item text, it is clearly that news item text is written to inform the newsworthy. It is socially important to know that there was an accident of pickup which caused three died.
Additionally the generic structure of above news item is as follow:
1. Main event; the main event is the three died in an accident of the pickup after attending marriage ceremony
2. Elaboration; it can be a background, participant, time, and place relating to the accident. It is the detail information for the accident which informs on how the accident happen and who are the victims.
3. Resource; it can be a witness or statement/treatment of the authority.

Learning text types is presented as the main subject in English lesson for high school students. Most of the time during their time in high school, the students focus their attention to text types with each generic structure and what language used to construct the texts varying to each other. That generic structure and language features which are commonly found different from one text to another is used based on the purpose of each genres.

Text types in the three main genres which must be studied in high school specially designed for graduate competences standard (SKL) are:
This narrative genre includes narrative, recount, and news item. All these text types in narrative genres composed to tell and inform.
The texts which include in descriptive genres are report, descriptive, and explanation. These text genres are written to describe. They tend to use words with describing sense and not telling
Argumentative genres will cover analytical exposition, hortatory exposition and discussion. These text types explore reason to answer the question "why" and "how".

To enlarge our knowledge, texts are defined into three main genres which slightly different from the above classification referring to the high school graduate competences standard. According to nationalstrategies, the tree main genres which show the text types distinctions are as follow:
1. NARRATIVE which includes adventure, mystery, science fiction, fantasy, historical fiction, contemporary fiction, dilemma stories, dialogue, myths, legends, fairy tales, and fables.
2. NON-FICTION which accommodates discussion texts, explanatory texts, instructional text, persuasion texts, non-chronological reports and recounts.
3. POETRY which refers to free verse, visual poems and structured poems.

2012 Film Review
2012 is Roland Emmerich's film which uses the Mayan calendar and other end-of-days prophecies for their doomsday scenario. It imagines the world coming to an end in 2012.

2012 film brings off a series of wonders. The movie hits its peak early on. It starts when Cusack drives a limo through the streets of Los Angeles as freeways and skyscrapers crumble all around him from the shock of a 10.5 earthquake. The preposterous flying sequence is equally thrilling. The climax occurs aboard the giant ark, when an equipment malfunction almost threatens the entire mission.

Unfortunately, the crucial sequence is not filmed or edited with the requisite clarity. In 2012 film, Emmerich leaves us befuddled as to exactly what is happening to whom. However, Emmerich' 2012 deserves credit for offbeat casting. Cusack supplies his trademark hangdog charm. McCarthy has perhaps his best role ever as Peet's cocky. Danny Glover lends dignity to the role of the tormented president. Chiwetel Ejiofor, as the chief scientist, brings a moving sense of anguish to a stock role. Platt has fun playing the villain of the piece, and Woody Harrelson also chews the scenery as a bug-eyed radio prophet trying to warn his listeners about Armageddon.

All in one, 2012's cinematography, production design and visual effects are awards-worthy. Music also propels the movie. It presents American Idol runner-up, Adam Lambert, who provides a rousing anthem over the end credits.
Simplified from:

Growing Number of High School Student Smoking
A survey has found about 13 percent of first-time smokers in the country are junior high school students. It also revealed 89 percent of young female employees were smokers.

The survey was conducted in five major cities across the country, including Surakarta in Central Java.

Muhammad Syahril Mansyur, the Surakarta Health Agency’s respiratory illness division, said that the finding of the survey showed an alarming growth rate of Indonesian smokers. "This situation is a cause for concern,” he said. “It appears the country’s younger generation is uneducated about the health risks of smoking.”

The Indonesian anti-tobacco campaign has reportedly been deemed as ineffective as the government refuses to sign the international convention on tobacco control. It said that cigarette producers contributed to a large amount to state revenue and gave jobs to thousands of workers.
Rearranged from:

Why Exercise is Important
The majority of us claim that we do not have time for exercise. We feel too busy to do that. However, many expert said that exercise has great role in making our body healthy

Being physically active offers many advantage. In physical reword, exercise can reduce weight then our body will become fitter. Exercise is also believed to reduce stress levels, improve sleep patterns, and reduce the risk of heart disease, diabetes and some forms of cancer. Beside physical advantage, exercise also brings good effects mentally. Due to the fitter body, exercise can make us feel refreshed and happy then we can increase our life quality and expectancy.

How can we do exercise while we are busy? Such question is commonly found among us. Actually exercise can be done in simple ways. We can go walking while shopping. In the office we can take stair rather than lift to run up and down. Or we can go cycling while enjoy the leisure time.

Over all, doing exercise is little bit difficult in busy life but the little bit of exercise will help better.

Adapted from: www.hifit.co.uk/health-breaks/importance-exercise.htm

The Unhealthy Fast Food
Fast food nowadays is considered a normal eating venture. People are not just eating out on special occasions or weekends anymore. It means that all the time they mostly eat fast foods. However is fast food good for health?

Fast food has its popularity in the 1940’s. Within a few years, fast-food operations popped up everywhere. With the compelling rise in fast-food restaurants since the 1940’s, oddly it started the rise in obesity and cancer during that same time period.

Fast food is highly processed with a wide array of additives. To ensure fast food’s low cost, the fast food products are made with highly-processed ingredients to give it shelf-life, to hold consistency, and to enhance flavor. Fast food is altered from its original healthy form.

It is not the calories in fast food which damage health and waistline. It is the chemical additives such as aspartame and MSG (monosodium glutamate). Studies show that the chemical additives lead to weight and disease issues.

So, there is absolutely nothing nutritional about fast food. Fast food simply feeds hunger and craving.

Simplified from: www.criticalbench.com/unhealthy_fast_food.htm

Landslide in Bukittinggi
Two people died while four others were wounded in a landslide at a yard behind a house near Teleng market in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra on Tuesday.

Killed were 3-year-old Yusuf, who was the son of a kiosk owner at the market, Bujang, and 22-year-old Meli, who was a visitor to the market. The injured were rushed to the Achmad Muchtar and Yarsi hospitals.

Bukittinggi Deputy Mayor Ismet Amziz said Tuesday it was suspected that recent heavy rainfall had caused the landslide.

Source: thejakartapost.com/news/2009/11/10/two-die-bukittinggi-landslide.html

Generic Structure of News Item
1. Main event: News item text presents the daily newsworthy. In this example of news item text, the first paragraph is the main event. It informs the reader that a landslide happened
2. Elaboration: The second paragraph of this example of news item gives further explanation about the main event that the two victim were 3 and 22 years old while the injured were brought to hospitals
3. Resource of information: The last paragraph is the official statement from the expert or the authority which strengthen the news of the main event

Kinds of Earthquake
Earthquake often happens around us. It brings great damages. Earthquake is hard to be predicted and that makes lot victims.

Actually there are three kinds of earthquake. This kinds of earthquake are commonly base on the factor and geological area where the earthquakes happen. These three kinds of earthquake are tectonic, volcanic and explosion.

Tectonic earthquakes is most common one. This kind of earthquake happens while earth's crust rocks break because of the geological strength created by moving of the earth's plates.

Volcanic earthquakes happen exactly with volcanic activity. Volcanic earthquakes are when the volcano produces acidic lava, which drys quickly, when it drys quickly it blocks the top of the volcano. This make no more magma can escape. Pressure starts to build up and eventually the acidic lava can no longer stand the pressure. So the volcano is free to explode, the pressure is released so fast that an earthquake is caused. A volcanic earthquake is usually kept within 10-20 miles of the volcano.

Explosion earthquakes are the result of the collapse earthquakes that are small earthquakes occurring in underground mines and caverns.

Partly taken from:

How do seasons happen?
Seasons come to us regularly. We have probably noticed that it gets warmer in summer or dry season while it get colder in the winter or wet season. However do we know how these seasons change?

Seasons happen and change every year. This happens because the earth tilts back and forth as it goes around the sun. During the summer, the earth tilts toward the sun. It makes half of the earth hotter. this condition is what we call summer. During the other half of the year, the earth tilts away from the sun. As a result, it makes that half of the earth cooler. This cool condition is then what we call winter.

The different parts of the world have the same season at different times. In the northern half of the world , winter happens during the months of December, January and February. The regions are such North America and Europe. In the other hand, the southern half of the world have winter during the months of June, July and August.The regions are like South America and Australia. How does this difference happen? The same season happens at different times because the top and bottom halves of the earth tilt away from the sun at different times.

Source: kidscientist.com/5/why-do-seasons-happen

What is a tornado?
Tornadoes are known as one of the most damaging disasters. What is the description of tornadoes? A tornado is a very powerful column of winds which spirals around a center of low atmospheric pressure. A tornado will look like a large black funnel which hangs down from a storm cloud.

The name "tornado" derives from the Latin "tonare". It means "to thunder." While the Spanish developed the word into "tornear" which means "to turn or twist". This is why a tornado is sometimes called twister or cyclone.

The winds inside a twister can spin around at speeds up to 500 miles an hour, but it usually travels at roughly 300 miles an hour. This speed twisting makes a tornado the most dangerous storm.

The average tornado has a diameter of about 200 to 300 yards. The smaller tornadoes are known as satellite tornadoes. These small offspring, about 50 yards across, can be very fierce and do lots of damage.

The forming of a tornado can be very quick. Sometimes it can form in a minute or less. A tornado can travel across the ground at high speeds, then it can suddenly vanish. Most tornadoes last less than twenty minutes and travel less than 15 miles. However, the super storms sometimes travel over 100 miles before they are exhausted.

Composed from: library.thinkquest.org/C003603/english/tornadoes/whatisatornado.shtml

Types of Volcanic Eruptions
Volcanic eruptions have caused some of the worst disasters in the world. They can wipe out entire cities and kill thousands of people.
The name of volcano comes from Roman term. It derives from VULCAN which is the name of Roman fire god. Romans believed that Vulcan lived on a volcanic Italian coast. Romans called the island VULCANO.

According to scientists, volcanic eruptions are divided in to four basic groups. They are commonly known as Hawaiian, Strombolian, Vulcanian and Peleean. The term of Hawaiian eruptions are named after the volcanoes in Hawaii. These volcanic eruptions are the least violent type. They produce highly fluid lava which flows quietly. This gradually builds up a shield volcano.

Strombolian eruptions are named after Stromboli. These result from the constant release of gas from the magma. As the gas escapes, it produces tephra that piles up, turning into a cinder cone. Strombolian eruptions happen when sticky magma plugs the central vent. This makes the magmatic gas build up pressure until it blasts. The magma is turned into volcanic dust and bombs.

Vulcanian eruption which comes from the ancient Roman belief, are more violent than the strombolian eruption. Vulcanian eruption happens and brings magma which is more viscous. Vulcanian explosions are usually larger and noisier than the Strombolian eruptions.

Paleean eruptions are famous as the most violent kind of volcanic eruptions. The name of paleean comes from the eruption of Mount Pelee, Martinique in 1902. It killed almost 38 thousands people. A Peleean eruption occurs when the magmatic gas build up tremendous pressure. This causes violent explosions with glowing clouds of hot ash and dust.

Simplified from: library.thinkquest.org/03oct/01027/volcaniceruptions.html

The Story of Sangkuriang and Tangkuban Perahu Mountain
Once, there was a kingdom in Priangan Land. Lived a happy family. They were a father in form of dog,his name is Tumang, a mother which was called is Dayang Sumbi, and a child which was called Sangkuriang.
One day, Dayang Sumbi asked her son to go hunting with his lovely dog, Tumang. After hunting all day, Sangkuriang began desperate and worried because he hunted no deer. Then he thought to shot his own dog. Then he took the dog liver and carried home.
Soon Dayang Sumbi found out that it was not deer lever but Tumang's, his own dog. So, She was very angry and hit Sangkuriang's head. In that incident, Sangkuriang got wounded and scar then cast away from their home.
Years go bye, Sangkuriang had travel many places and finally arrived at a village. He met a beautiful woman and felt in love with her. When they were discussing their wedding plans, The woman looked at the wound in Sangkuriang's head. It matched to her son's wound who had left severall years earlier. Soon she realized that she felt in love with her own son.
She couldn't marry him but how to say it. Then, she found the way. She needed a lake and a boat for celebrating their wedding day. Sangkuriang had to make them in one night. He built a lake. With a dawn just moment away and the boat was almost complete. Dayang Sumbi had to stop it. Then, she lit up the eastern horizon with flashes of light. It made the cock crowed for a new day.
Sangkuriang failed to marry her. She was very angry and kicked the boat. It felt over and became the mountain of Tangkuban Perahu Bandung.

simplified from: www.bandungtourism.com/home_legend_e.php

How Earthquakes Happen
Earthquake is one of the most destroying natural disasters. Unluckily it often happens in several regions. Recently a horrible earthquake has shaken West Sumatra. It has brought great damages. Why did it occur? Do you know how an earthquake happens?

Earthquakes are usually caused when rock underground suddenly breaks along a fault. This sudden release of energy causes the seismic waves. It make the ground shake. When two blocks of rock or two plates are rubbing against each other, they stick a little. They don't just slide smoothly. The rocks are still pushing against each other, but not moving. After a while, the rocks break because of all the pressure that's built up. When the rocks break, the earthquake occurs.

During the earthquake and afterward, the plates or blocks of rock start moving, and they continue to move until they get stuck again. The spot underground where the rock breaks is called the focus of the earthquake. The place right above the focus is called the epicenter of the earthquake.

Mainly taken from: www.geo.mtu.edu/UPSeis/why.html

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