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Adverb Phrase and Adverbial phrase

What is Adverb Phrase?
“Adverb phrase is a unit of phrase consists of an adverb as the head and one or more modifiers.”

An adverb phrase has a function as like the head, adverb. It may appear individually. The meaning of adverbial or adverbial phrase is a linguistic term for a single adverb or a group of more than one word operating adverbially, when viewed in terms of their syntactic function.
Now, look at sentences below. Please compare the following sentences:

•          We will go home soon.
•          We will go home in an hour.
•          We will go home when we have finished our book. 

In the first sentence, soon is an adverb. Beside that, it is an adverbial. So, it is clear that in the second sentence, in an hour has the same syntactic function, but it does not contain an adverb. So, we can conclude that the preposition, article, and noun in the sentences above have a same function. The function is as an Adverbial. In the third example below, we can see that a whole clause has a function as an adverbial. It could also be called an adverbial phrase. But, it is more likely to be described as an adverbial clause.

Adverbials sometimes consist of a pair of adverbs. Extra adverbs are called intensifiers:
•          Oddly enough
•          Very nicely
An adverbial can modify a verb phrase, an adjectival phrase or an entire clause.

Comparing the structure of the adverb and adjective phrases
It is quite useful to compare the adverb phrase with the adjective phrase. Now, Mr. Enjoy wants to give the structures for the adverb phrases in the left half and the adjective phrase in the right half.

The examples above illustrate the difference between the adverb phrase and the adjective phrase: the form of the complement it allows. The adjective takes an argument in only two of its possible forms. The first is as a noun clause complement, and the next is as an infinitive (a specific reduced form of a noun clause). I think it is enough. Stay tune on www.enjoy2learn-english.blogspot.com

See you in the next Post! ^_^

Mr. Enjoy

Conjunction and Compounding

Hula… Today, Mr. Enjoy wants to tell you about Conjunction and Compounding. Let’s start the killing!

Conjunction is a word that connects other words, phrases, or sentences”

The words includes and, but, or, because. A conjunction joins two words, phrases or sentences together. Here are the examples:

But, so, and, because, or

And here are some characteristics of Conjunctions:

·      Conjunction is an uninfluenced function word that serves to conjoin words, or phrases, clauses or sentences.
·      Conjunction is a part of speech that connects two words, phrases, or clauses together.
·      Conjunction mostly derived from other parts of speech, particularly prepositions.
·      Conjunction is a small class of words.
·      Conjunction has function as non-movable structure words that join such units as parts of speech, phrases, clauses, or sentences.

There are two types of conjunctions:
a)         Coordinate Conjunctions
b)         Subordinate Conjunctions


In English, sentences are not formed by simply stringing words together.

Sentences have a hierarchical design that some words are grouped together into successively larger structural units. This structural unit is called phrases.

In English grammar, a phrase defined as a group of words that has functions as a single unit in the syntax of a sentence. Beside that, Phrase can also be defined as a term used in grammatical analysis to refer to a single element of structure containing more than one word, and lacking the subject-predicate structure typical of clauses.
The meaning of a phrase is a slot in which one or more words can occur, or indeed other phrases can occur.

A phrase is a syntactic structure which has syntactic properties derived from its head. A phrase can contain another phrase, such as the rather intriguing results of the examination. A phrase can also contain a clause, such as the woman who came to see him. Phrases can be extended indefinitely.

Different types of phrase have different types of head. Phrases occur in clauses, but clauses can also occur inside phrases
A complex phrase consists of several words, whereas a simple phrase consists of only one word. This terminology is especially often used with verb phrases:
          Simple past and present are simple verb, which require just one verb
          Complex verb have one or two aspects added, hence require additional two or three words  "Complex", which is phrase-level, is often confused with "compound", which is word-level. However, there are certain phenomena that formally seem to be phrases but semantically are more like compounds, like "women's magazines", which has the form of a possessive noun phrase, but which refers (just like a compound) to one specific lexeme (i.e. a magazine for women and not some magazine owned by a woman).

Kinds of Phrases

Phrases can be classified by the type of head (vs. Tail) they take

1.      Prepositional phrase (PP)
This phrase has a preposition as head (e.g. in love, over the rainbow). Languages that use postpositions instead have postpositional phrases. The two types are sometimes commonly referred to as ad positional phrases.

2.      Noun phrase (NP)
This phrase has a noun as head (e.g. the black cat, a cat on the mat)
Please come in vs. She goes down + ?

3.      Verb phrase (VP)
This phrase has a verb as head (e.g. eat cheese, jump up and down)

4.      Adjectival phrase
This phrase has an adjective as head (e.g. full of toys)

5.      Adverbial phrase
This phrase has an adverb as head (e.g. very carefully)

See you in the next Post! ^_^

Mr. Enjoy

Preposition and Prepositional Phrase

Hello all… Come with me again, Mr. Enjoy. In the last few days, Mr. Enjoy was too lazy to be online and met you all. It was because Mr. Enjoy had so many assignments. I hope you miss me. Ha-ha… Now, Mr. Enjoy wants to talk about Preposition

Preposition is a word or phrase that shows the relationship of a noun to another noun”

Preposition is a word or phrase that shows the relationship of a noun to another noun such as at, by, in, to, from, with. Sometimes, preposition comes before a noun. It is also usually comes before pronoun or noun phrase. A preposition joins the noun to some other part of the sentence. I will give you some examples:

On, in, by, with, under, through, at

Here are some special characteristics of Prepositions:

- Preposition is a part of speech in traditional grammar.
- Preposition is a structure word in modern grammar.
- Preposition is a small class of words.
- Preposition has no formal characteristic endings.
- Preposition is a word used to relate a noun or pronoun to some other part of the sentence (see the diagram).
- Preposition is signal syntactic structures that function as the other parts of speech (noun, adjective, and adverb).
- Range in meanings of Preposition: from definite semantic notions as time, place, etc. to purely structural meanings.
- signal that a noun or noun phrase or noun clause follows it.
- Preposition is a word that combines with a noun or pronoun to form a phrase

The example of procedure text bellow is the instruction on how to tie a neck tie. Remember that a procedure or instruction text is commonly arranged in imperative sentences. Let's see the following example of a procedure text. This procedure or instruction text is about how to tie a neck tie, the half windsor knot

How to Tie a Neck Tie
First of all, start with the wide end on your right. Extend it about 12" below the narrow end.
Secondly, cross the wide end over the narrow, and back underneath.
Then, bring the wide end up, and turn down through loop.
After that, pass the wide end around to the front from your left to right.
Then, bring the wide end up through the loop.
Finally, pull the wide end through the knot in front. Tighten and draw up to collar.
Note: this procedure text sample is arranged from: www.how-to-tie-a-tie.org/necktie.php


Oh laa laa… With me again, Mr. Enjoy. Here we will discuss about Adverb. So, let’s go to the point! Bruuummmm…. Ccchhhhiiiiiiiittttttt…. Here it is the description of Adverb:

“Adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb”

Is it clear now, eh? I hope so. :D. Adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb such as obstinately, slowly, much. Adverb tells you how something is done. It may also tell you when or where something happened. I will give you examples again:
Slowly, tomorrow, here, yesterday, intelligently, well, everywhere, etc.

Here are the special characters of adverb. Check it out!
- Adverb is a word that adds information to a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.
- Adverb is the part of speech used to limit or describe the verb, adjective, or adverb it modifies.
- Adverb is a word that modifies any other part of language (a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or a clause, or a whole sentence, except a noun).
- Adverbs typically answer some questions like How?, When?, Where?, in what way?, or how often? It is called the adverbial function, and is realized not just by single words (i.e. adverbs), but also by adverbial phrases and adverbial clauses.
- Range in form:
From words clearly marked as adverbs to those that have the form of other parts of speech. Some adverbs merge with nouns or prepositions because of the form; some merge with interjections because of their ability to express emotion and to serve as sentence modifiers; some merge with conjunctions because of their ability to perform a connecting function.
- Range in meanings:
From words having a string lexical content (those that describe the action of the verb, or those that indicate such meanings as time and place) to those that are used merely for emphasis.
- Range in functions:
From close to loose modifiers of the verb; from close modifiers of single words, prepositional phrases or clauses, to loose modifiers of the entire sentence.

Types of Adverbs Based on the Function:
1.      Sentence adverbs
 Fortunately, exactly, actually, obviously, evidently, etc. (modifying the whole sentence)
2.      Conjunctive adverbs
 Therefore, accordingly, besides, however, otherwise, then, etc. (modifying the whole sentence)
3.      Explanatory adverbs
Namely, for example, as, i.e. (that is), e.g., viz. (as illustration)
4.      Exclamatory adverbs
 How (how beautiful Mary is)

Functions of Adverbs:
Adverb has four functions. They are:
a)      as modifiers of verbs
b)      as modifiers of adjectives
c)      as modifiers of another adverb
d)      as modifiers of the whole sentence
·         Fortunately, the very small boy threw the ball very quickly.
·         The boy quickly threw the ball there twice yesterday.

Adverbials in final position: (the order: adverbs of place, manner, time), e.g.:
1. The witness walked to the stand hesitantly when he was called.
2. Lee was walking along the street quietly with his cat last night.

Other Complex Structures that Function as Adverbials:
1. Alex puts the book on the bed. (Prepositional phrase)
2. You’ll do it when you have time. (Adverbial clause)
3. Turn left to get to the bridge. (Infinitive phrase)

Distinguishing Adverbs (Emphasizers):
- They emphasize particular words or grammatical constructions and appear immediately before them, e.g.:
1.      She was not especially pretty. (adjective)
2.      This isn’t exactly right. (adjective)
3.      Even John agreed to come. (noun)
4.      Only she could not come. (pronoun)
5.      He went to the party only because of his wife. (prepositional phrase)
6.      I don’t know exactly when I can come. (subordinate clause)

Reversals of Word Order after certain Adverbials:
- The subject and verb are often reversed after initials of:
1.      negatives (or near negatives)
2.      only, so, such
3.      expressions of place
For examples:
a.      Never have I seen such a sight.
b.      Seldom did they have enough to eat.
c.       No sooner had he left the office than he received an important telephone call.
d.      Not only is his new car less expensive than the old one, but it also uses less gasoline.
e.      She doesn’t know where her former husband is living, nor does she care to know.
f.        At no time in history has there been complete justice.


Taa Daa…. Mr. Enjoy comes again. Today, Mr. Enjoy wants to explain you all about Adjective. I think all of you have heard about this word. So, what is Adjective? Is it a name of a food? Or may be it is a name of animal. Ha-ha… Don’t make a joke guys. Here is the meaning of Adjective:

“An adjective is a word that describes a noun.”

Adjective tells you something about the noun. There have explained in the previous post, about the definition of Noun. So, if noun is the name of something, adjective tells or describes the noun it self. I will give you some examples:
Big, yellow, thin, amazing, beautiful, quick, important

Adjective can also be described as a word or combination of words that modifies a noun. The examples are: blue-green, central, half-baked, temporary.

The characteristic of Noun:
- The word that expresses an attribute of something.
- The word class that qualifies nouns.
- Almost always placed before a noun in English.
- Adjective is a word that modifies a noun or pronoun by describing, refining, or qualifying it.
- Adjective has grammatical function of comparison
- An adjective is a part of speech which modifies a noun, usually making its meaning more specific. Adjectives are used in a predicative or attributive manner.
- Most usual position of adjective is at before the noun it modifies, but some are at other positions. The examples are: fifteen feet deep, the sky above, chapter five, etc.
- Can be identified by special derivational endings. It also can be identified by special adverbial modifiers that precede it.
- Examples of the sequence of adjectives in a noun phrase:
1.      Both the gifted young Negro college students
2.      Those three self-conscious little ladies
3.      The first ten four multi-purpose aluminum kitchen utensils
4.      That temperamental Italian opera singer.
Look at the table below:

Other Grammatical Structures as Adjectives:

1. The man who is sitting at the chair beside the lift. (Adjective clause)
2. The man sitting at the chair beside the lift. (Participial phrase)
3. The man at the chair beside the lift. (Prepositional phrase)
4. The man beside the lift. (Adverbial)
5. The man to finish on time. (Infinitive phrase)

Adjectives as others:
1. The brave, the dead (noun)
2. Hold tight (adverb)

I think it is enough. Mr. Enjoy feels so tired. Stay tune on www.enjoy2learn-english.blogspot.com See you in the next post! ^_^


Hello friends, how are you? Hope you are all fine. Today we’ll discuss about verb. Before we go further, I will describe the meaning of verb first.

“A verb is a word which describes an action (doing something) or a state (being something).

Have you understood it? Take a look at examples below:
Walk, talk, think, believe, live, like, want

Verbs can transform into two forms.
·         The first form is become transitive.
It requires an object (her in I met her).
·         The second form is become intransitive.
It requires only a subject (The sun rises).
There also some verbs that are both transitive (e.g. feel: Feel the fabric) and intransitive (I feel cold) Cold here acts as an adjective, not object.

Characteristic of verbs
Below are characteristics of Verbs:
- One of the sentence cores.
- The verb is the most complex part of speech. Its varying arrangements with nouns determine the different kinds of sentences – statements, questions, commands, exclamations.
- Verb serves as the predicate of a sentence.
- Verb is a content word that denotes an action or a state of being.
- Verb is a word that means event or action, and it combines things involved in the event in a sentence.
- Verb is a part of speech that usually denotes action e.g. bring, read, occurrence e.g. to decompose (itself), to glitter, or a state of being e.g. exist, live, soak, stand.

“Special characteristic” and the properties of Verb:
1.      Tense
Verb is unique words. Every verb has special verb endings or accompanying auxiliary verbs to signal the time. Example: walk à walked, sleep à slept
2.      Voice
Special verb forms arranged in certain positions with nouns to indicate whether the grammatical subject of a sentence is performing an action (active voice) or is itself being acted upon (passive voice).
3.      Mood
Special verb forms marking (a) commands and requests, (b) statements expressing wishes, unreal conditions, or matters of urgency or importance.
4.      Aspect
Certain verb forms, often with accompanying adverbial expressions, indicating whether an event is to be regarded as a single point on a time continuum, a repetition of points, or a single duration with a beginning, a middle, and an end.

Functions of Verbs:
Here is two functions of verb:
1. Linkage (Linking Verbs)
2. Strongest predicating words (Dynamic Verbs)

I think it is enough for the description of Verb. I hope you understand with what I talk about above. If you have some problems, ask something, or may be you still do not understand, please feel free to contact me. It will be my honor to help you all. That’s all. See you in the next post. Stay tune on www.enjoy2learn-english.blogspot.com

Noun: Description and the “Special Function”

à   Description of Noun
As I promised in the previous post, now I will describe further about each of the parts of speech.  The description of noun:

A noun is a naming word.

It can be a name of a person, living creature, thing, place, idea, quality, action, etc. Take a look at the examples below:

Cowboy, theatre, box, thought, tree, kindness, arrival, New York, execution, beauty. 

à   Functions of Noun
Noun has many functions. A noun can be used as the subject of a verb, the object of a verb, an identifying noun, the object of a preposition, or an appositive (an explanatory phrase coupled with a subject or object).

à   Some Characteristic of Noun
- The main/head word in many structures.
- Important part of speech.
- One of the sentence cores.
- A noun, or noun substantive, is a part of speech (a word or phrase) which can co-occur with (in)definite articles and attributive adjectives, and functions as the head of a noun phrase.

- Derives from the Latin nomen. It has meaning “name”. A traditional definition of nouns is that they are all and only those expressions that refer to a person, place, thing, event, substance, quality, or idea.


There is not only a “real” noun that can act like a noun. Adjectives also can be used as Nouns. Look at some examples below:

- The strong, the poor, the big, the dead, the blind, etc.
- The Mongols, the Indonesians, the Chinese, the Australians, etc.
- The executed, the kicked, the deceased, etc.
- The cheapest, the brightest, the smallest, etc.

Verbs also can be used as Nouns. It called Gerunds. Actually, Mr. Enjoy have describe it in the previous post. So, I don’t want to describe it again. If you forgot about Gerunds, please go there

Adverbs also can be used as noun too, e.g. from there, by now

à   “Special” Functions of Nouns:

1. In Central Core:
    a. As Subject (S)
    b. As complement of verb à direct object (DO) and indirect object (IO)
    c. As Subjective complement (Predicate noun) (SC)
    d. As Objective complement (OC)

2. In Structures of Modification:
    e. Object of preposition
        cf. V + Preposition + Noun/Noun Phrase  à  Prepositional object
    f. Apposition (appositive)
    g. Direct address (vocation, vocative)
    h. Noun adjunct
        à Together with the noun form a noun compound
        à Mostly singular
        à Some are plural, e.g. men doctors
    Examples:    (1) David loves Fiona.
                        (2) David sent Fiona money.
                        (3) She took it from David.
                        (4) David is the governor.
                        (5) They elected David their governor.
                        (6) David waited at the rail station.
                        (7) David, president of the club, didn’t come to the meeting.
                        (8) David, go away!

- Larger Structures may function as nouns:
   a. Gerund phrases: Fishing in the river making our mind fresh.
   b. Infinitive phrases: Mike wanted to see him again.
   c. Noun clauses: Ivy said that she had seen Abraham again.

à   Forms of Nouns:
1. Inflectional forms (especially number and possessive)
2. Derivational forms

à   Markers of Nouns:
1. Determiners:
    a. Articles
    b. Possessives
    c. Demonstratives
    d. Numbers
    e. Words of indefinite quantity (some, more)
2. Prepositions
3. Descriptive adjectives in phrases or structures of modification, e.g. the beautiful painting, a long speech.

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