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An elephant is the largest and strongest of all animals. It is a strange looking animal which it has thick legs, huge sides and backs, large hanging ears, a small tail, little eyes, long white tusks and above all, elephant has a long nose, the trunk. An elephant is commonly seen in a zoo, it has hard found in it natural habitat.
The trunk is the elephant's peculiar feature. This trunk has various usages. The elephant draws up water by its trunk and can squirt the water all over its body like a shower bath. The elephant's trunk also lift leaves and put them into its mouth. In fact, the trunk serves the elephant as long arm and hand. An elephant looks very clumsy and heavy and yet an elephant can move very quickly.
The elephant is very intelligent animal. Its intelligence combined with its great strength makes an elephant a very useful servant to man. Elephant can be trained to serve in various ways such as carry heavy loads, hunt for tigers and even fight. An elephant is really a smart animal.

Making coloured and scented candles is really quick and simple. What's more, you'll save so much money. If making candle is easy, why do you ever bought one from a shop? What you need in making candle are wax, moulds, wick, dye discs, essential oils, and a double boiler. All these materials are available from craft shops. Or if you do not want to buy them, you can improvise with an old saucepan, pyrex jug, or even a sturdy can, in a pot of water. After providing the materials, follow this procedure or instruction in making candles!
First of all, melt the wax. All wax has a flash point, so to prevent it bursting into flames, you must melt it in a double boiler, with water in the bottom pan.
Then, prepare the mould with the wick. Thread the wick through the mould and make sure that you leave a good few centimetres sticking out of the hole in the bottom.
After that, add the scent. If you want a scented candle, add a few drops of essential oil to the melted wax. You can use any essential oil you like, as long as it doesn't contain water.
Next step, pour the wax into the mould. Try and tip the wax into the mould quickly, all in one go, to minimise spillage and air bubbles.
Then, release the bubbles and top it up. Releasing the air bubbles will eventually make the candle sink, so you will need to top it up with more melted wax.
Finally, remove it from the mould. After four or five hours, the candle can be taken out of its mould.
Your candle is now ready for display. Remember, you must always leave it for a day before lighting it.
Source: www.channel4.com/4homes/design-style/how-to-guides/how-to-make-candles-intro-09-04-21_p_1.html

Explanation text in some way is similar to procedure text. Explanation passage often make description about how something happens or why the thing occures. While procedure text bring the instruction on how to make something happen completely. The following example of explanation text about how rain happen is best showing on what is explanation text, what is the purpose or social function of explanation text and how it differ from other text types. Explanation text often use technical terms related to the thing which is being explained. Explanation text is commonly compose in the mode of simple present tense.

How does Rain Happen?
Rain is the primary source of fresh water for most areas of the world, providing suitable conditions for diverse ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation.
The phenomenon of rain is actually a water circle. The concept of the water cycle involves the sun heating the Earth's surface water and causing the surface water to evaporate. The water vapor rises into the Earth's atmosphere. The water in the atmosphere cools and condenses into liquid droplets. The droplets grow until they are heavy and fall to the earth as precipitation which can be in the form of rain or snow.
However, not all rain reaches the surface. Some evaporates while falling through dry air. This is called virga, a phenomenon which is often seen in hot, dry desert regions.

National exam becomes the hot topic in most of discussions. Though the Supreme Court has rejected an appeal by the go-vernment on the organization of the national exams, the controversy over whether it is necessary to maintain the national exams (UN) has continued. Some debates include the primary questions such as; does the quality of Indonesia education depend on the national exam?, will the quality of the Indonesian education system worsen without natipnal exam?
People, who support the national exam explain that the quality of the Indonesia education system will drop without the national exam, so they try to defend the current system.
Hoever there are people who disagree with the opinion. Those who against this national exam kept in our high school education say that it doesn't need the national exams because the quality of education does not just depend on the national exam. Further, the national exam only measures a small portion of students' competence in specific subjects, and does not measure students' competences throughout the semester.
In fact, the national examination can still be useful as an instrument to evaluate or detect the level of students' cognitive competence in several subjects, on a national scale.
Arranged from: www.thejakartapost.com/news/2009/12/19/quality-education-and-national-exams.html

A cell phone is a great gadget in this modern world. What is a cell phone? A cell phone is actually a radio in certain way. Like a radio, by a cell phone we can communicate to other people in real time. Million people use cell phone for their communication. Even nowadays, people use cell phones to communicate in voice, written and data. Alexander Graham Bell is the person who make great change in the way people communicate to each other. He invented a telephone in 1876. While wireless radio was formally known in 18994 presented by Guglielmo Marconi. By these two technologies, then a cell phone was born. However do you know how actually cell phones work?
This short explanation on how a cell phone work is really wonderful. A cell phone or in long term "cellular telephone' works by transmitting signals of radio to towers of cellular. The towers are networked to a central switching station. The connection usually uses wire, fiber optic-cables, or microwave.
Then the central switching station which handles calls in certain given area is directed connected to the wire-based telephone system. Cellulars are pick up by the towers and relayed to another cellular telephone user or the user of wire-based telephone network.
the towers vary in the capacity and capability to receive signals. Some can receive the signal from short distance and the others can receive more distance. However, there are usually more than one tower in certain given area so that the system can handle the increasing telephone traffic.

Gift cards become more popular during recent years. For example, in one season of holiday, sales reach $19 billion in United Stated and seem to grow more in the following season due to their convenience in the side of consumers and retailers.
In retailers side, gift cards bring them some benefits. Selling gift card in simply selling product. When the cards are sold, they will get benefit. Additionally, gift card tends to be a matter of image and trend which means it is not strictly influenced by the functionality. Since gift card is the trend, the sales will increase significantly.
However, there is potential disadvantages in the side of consumers. For example, itune gift cards apply process in the way of completing the shopping. they need do one step to another steps in processing the shopping. Likely, most of the steps apply time and date of validity or expiration. When certain step loose that validating date, the gift cards may be in risk. The gift card can be rejected to redeem. Again, in retailers side, producing card its self is costly. It means that there is additional cost which retailers have to pay.
In whatever thing, we need to be wise. if we can use that gift card effectively, the disadvantages can be reduced.

There are three kinds of text in genres of narration. They are narrative, recount and news item text itself. The three kinds of text have similar social function. They are composed or written to inform about something which happened in the past. What make different among them is the generic structure how they are composed. Due to informing about the past events, the three types of text commonly use pattern of simple past tense.
Specifically news item text inform publicly about the thing happened which is considered as newsworthy. It is important to be known publicly as it often happens in one part of region and that the function of news item text to socially spread the news. Take a look to the following example of news item text. It is quoted from the jakarta post. The news item text is informing the occurence of exploding car bomb.

Car bomb kills 3 near KFC in northwest Pakistan
A car bomb exploded Saturday near a KFC fast-food restaurant in Pakistan's main northwestern city, killing at least three people and leaving others trapped in a blazing building where many lawyers have offices, officials said.
The attack in Peshawar was the latest in a wave that has underscored the resilience of militant networks in the country as the army wages a key offensive against the Taliban in the lawless tribal belt bordering Afghanistan. An attack Friday on a mosque frequented by army personnel killed 37 people in the garrison city of Rawalpindi.
Saturday's explosion damaged vehicles and shattered windows along a wide stretch of a major road. At least three people died and seven others were wounded, police official Gohar Zaman said.

From the above example of news item text, we see most sentences are composed in pattern of PAST TENSE. The usage of past tense is as logical consequency as it tells the thing which happens in the past.
The generic structure of the newa item text is as follow:
Main event; the main event is the main newsworthy as a car bomb explodes
Elaboration; it can be a background, participant, victim, time, and place relating to the exploding bomb
Resource; it can be a witness or statement/treatment of the authority.

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